Abstraction is a key concept in the world of object-oriented programming (OOP), and Java is no exception. It allows us to focus on the essential features of an object while ignoring the details. In other words, abstraction is all about generalizing and simplifying complex systems by breaking them down into manageable pieces.
An abstract class in Java is a blueprint for creating objects with common characteristics and behavior. It cannot be instantiated on its own, which means you can't create an object directly from an abstract class. Instead, other classes must inherit from the abstract class and provide implementations for any abstract methods it contains.
To create an abstract class, use the
Animal class has an abstract method
makeSound(). Any class that inherits from
Animal must implement this method.
Extending Abstract Classes
To inherit from an abstract class, use the
Dog implements the
makeSound() method from the
Animal abstract class. We can create a
Dog object and call the
Interfaces in Java are similar to abstract classes, but they provide a higher level of abstraction. They act as a contract that specifies a set of methods that a class must implement. In Java, a class can implement multiple interfaces, allowing for greater flexibility and code reusability.
To create an interface, use the
Flyable interface contains a single method,
To implement an interface, use the
Bird class now implements both the
Animal abstract class and the
Flyable interface, providing implementations for the
Abstraction is an essential concept in Java and other object-oriented programming languages. It helps to simplify complex systems by focusing on essential features and hiding the details. In Java, you can achieve abstraction through abstract classes and interfaces, allowing you to create flexible, reusable, and easy-to-maintain code. Dive deeper into Object-Oriented Programming in Java to further enhance your programming skills!