Control Structures in Python

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Python is a programming language that offers a variety of control structures to help you create efficient and organized code. These include loops, conditionals, and exception handling. Let's delve into these concepts and learn how to apply them in Python.


Loops are essential for performing repetitive tasks. Python provides two types of loops: for and while.

For Loops

For loops are used to iterate over a sequence of elements, such as lists, tuples, or strings. In Python, a for loop looks like this:

for element in sequence: # code to be executed

For example, let's print the elements of a list:

fruits = ["apple", "orange", "banana"] for fruit in fruits: print(fruit)

This code will output:

apple orange banana

While Loops

While loops repeatedly execute a block of code as long as a given condition remains true. The syntax for a while loop is:

while condition: # code to be executed

Here's an example that counts from 1 to 5:

count = 1 while count <= 5: print(count) count += 1

The output will be:

1 2 3 4 5


Conditionals allow you to execute different code based on certain conditions. In Python, you use if, elif, and else statements to create conditional structures.

if condition1: # code to be executed if condition1 is true elif condition2: # code to be executed if condition1 is false and condition2 is true else: # code to be executed if both conditions are false

For example, let's determine if a number is positive, negative, or zero:

number = 0 if number > 0: print("Positive") elif number < 0: print("Negative") else: print("Zero")

This code will output:


Exception Handling

Exceptions are events that occur during the execution of a program, indicating that something unexpected has happened. Python provides try, except, and finally statements to handle exceptions gracefully.

A try block contains code that might raise an exception. An except block catches the exception and determines the appropriate response. The optional finally block executes code regardless of whether an exception occurred or not.

Here's an example of exception handling in Python:

try: result = 10 / 0 except ZeroDivisionError: print("Oops! You tried to divide by zero.") finally: print("This will always be executed.")

In this case, the output will be:

Oops! You tried to divide by zero. This will always be executed.

By understanding and utilizing Python's control structures, you'll be able to create more efficient and organized code, allowing you to tackle a wide range of programming tasks. Happy coding!

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